Category Archives: Translation Tips

Tips and tricks I have picked up over 20 years of translating and running a translation agency.

Make your computer clean, lean and mean

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Translation memory software can be demanding on your computer. If you have translated for several years, the software scans all your previous translations looking for similar sentences/segments to make your work faster. If when working with such a tool you feel it is a little sluggish, this can slow you down, adding up over time and resulting in lost revenue. Because time is money. If you feel it is working well then you can consider skipping this section; however, it might be a worthwhile read to learn about some precautions you can take to avoid viruses. Not all virus protection software is perfect, which may end up being costly, such as keylogging software, which keeps track of which websites you access and the keys you punch in to login. Such as your PayPal account, and the subsequent username and password. Which it would subsequently send by email to somewhere in Russia and then, well, the rest could be painful history.

If your computer feels sluggish in any way, the first thing you want to check out is your CPU usage (check out the computer intro section for an understanding of the various components of your computer).

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For this I like to use the Task Manager (Start > Control Panel > Performance Information and Tools > Advanced Tools > Task Manager). You can set it so that it displays a little icon in the task bar (above pic with the half bright green icon showing 50% usage as I was opening up VLC). If you have a good machine that is already clean, lean and mean, the CPU average use should be around 2-3%. If you double click on the icon, the program pops up, and if you go to the Processes tab, it should show you the list of programs and processes running on your computer. Make sure you have the “Show processes from all users” checkbox selected so you can see all the processes running on your computer. Click on the header of the CPU column to sort all the processes in order of consumption. If you press the header again, it will sort it from highest to lowest, or lowest to highest.

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If sorted from highest to lowest and your machine is humming nicely, such as at only 2-3% CPU usage, the top process would be System Idle Process, in this case running at 97-98%. This actually just shows how much the CPU is NOT being used, so the higher this percentage the better. If it is constantly showing at 50%, it means all other processes on your computer combined are consuming 50% of your CPU. The higher this consumption, or the lower the percent “used” by System Idle Process, the more your CPU or processor is busy. The busier your CPU, the less capacity it will have to perform the tasks you want to make you faster money. It can also overheat your CPU, especially if you are working in a warmer climate, and burn it out faster. If running at 50%, it will also show this in the taskbar icon, half of it filled up with bright green.

Check your ram

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If your CPU is constantly running at a high rate, the first thing you want to do is check your ram. As explained in the computer intro, if you don’t have enough ram to efficiently run all your programs, your computer will end up using your harddrive to constantly store and retrieve bits of data that it cannot hold in ram.

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To check this, a good, free program to use, also for checking the condition of your computer in general, is Glary Utilities. It can be your one stop shop for a complete overview of your system and how to optimise it. When in the Advanced Tools tab, under System Status click on System Information, and then Memory. Mine is showing at 1,385 MB (1.3 GB) Free Memory, so I’m doing okay.

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If you are very low on ram, either you need to buy more ram, or you could have a lot of unnecessary processes running that you don’t even need. This will be explained later.

Check your processes

If you have plenty of ram, then you know that your high CPU usage is not because of that. Later I will explain how to free up ram by shutting down unnecessary software and process – this is always a good thing. Think lean and mean!

To check your CPU usage, double click on the Task Manager icon and sort your process in order of CPU consumption. Make sure you have the “Show process from all users” so that you can see everything running on your computer. If you will see a process that is hogging up a lot of CPU, you will want to analyse it. You can do an internet search on its name and research what program creates and uses such a process. If the name is followed by an extension, such as .exe, make sure to write that out as well. Note though that there are many websites which offer information regarding different processes but which loudly display flashy banners warning you that your computer is unsafe and that you should download such and such software to clean it up. Be careful of these. processlibrary.com is one reputable website, otherwise ignore the ads and just read the information. You should soon be able to recognise the serious sites which offer useful information and are not try to sell you a scam.

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The good sites will also inform you if a said process can actually be a virus in disguise, and how to deal with it. If some process is continuously hogging up a lot of CPU, you definitely want to first check if it could be a virus, and the study it to understand what the problem is and how you can deal with it. To save your CPU from burning out, and to free up as much CPU as possible so that your computer is ready to fully serve you for whatever you need, you should try to get the cruising speed down to about 2-3% total usage. It hardly requires any CPU to type into a Word file, and most, quality translation memory software should do all the analysis before you start working, and not while you work.

In Glary Utilities, under System Control > Processes, you can see the same information but with a rating from users or the developer regarding the safety of each process. This may be interesting to check out, but does not necessarily have to be accurate.

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A lot of programs might use and start a lot of processes, so if you do not see anything consuming a lot of CPU in your long list, you can move on to the next section, rather than study each of them.

Check your startup programs

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In Glary Utilities, under System Control > Startup Items, you can see a list of programs that are set to initiate every time you turn on your Windows. You can go through all the tabs and decide if you want to disable any of the programs from starting automatically with Windows. When you install programs, a lot of them will automatically throw things into the Startup Menu to run automatically with each Windows restart. As explained below, the more programs you install on your system, the slower it generally gets, especially if they command some process to start with Windows. Look through all these, but we will get to your Windows Services later.

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Another good, free program to have is Winpatrol. Not only is it a very light program which monitors for anything peculiar happening on your computer, it also has some good tools, and above all, the Delayed Start tab. I like to have a lot of programs open on my computer and find that Windows can run into problems if too many of them are thrown into the Startup menu. If you go to the Startup Programs tab and right mouse click on one of the programs, you should notice Move to Delayed Start Program List in the dropdown menu. You can do this with some of your programs, spreading them out over minutes and specifying exactly how long after Windows startup each should be activated. This will give Windows time to startup properly, and then the other programs in succession. There is nothing more irritating than having to restart Windows and then manually open all your usual software, when instead you can just turn on your computer and all will be automatically returned to its usual state (even individual files are possible) in a manner of a few minutes.

Check Windows Services

A little bit more complicated, but if you want to go further to becoming leaner, at least worth checking out.

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In Glary Utilities, under System Control, click on Services. This should open up Windows’ services window. You can click on the column header Startup Type to order the services in that way. What will interest you are the ones that are set to start automatically, even with a delayed start, and you will probably be surprised to find out how many there are. An easy way to deal with this is to turn to an expert. You can do a net search for something like “which windows services to turn on or off” and do a bit of reading to make your system leaner. Not all the services in this list are part of Windows, so you can definitely clean up a little shop here. Based on what recommendations you find, just double click on the service in question so you can change the Startup Type accordingly (such as from Automatic to Disabled or Manual).

Check installed programs

Perhaps before even checking all your running processes and services, you should check what programs you have installed on your system. As mentioned above, the more programs you have installed and the more processes they automatically initiate on Windows startup, the slower your computer will get.

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In Glary Utilities > Programs > Uninstall, you can view all the programs installed on your system and easily uninstall any that you feel you do not truly need. If you do not know what the program is, simply look it up on the net. Get clean and lean!

Check Windows Features

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Go to Start > Control Panel > Programs and Features > “Turn Windows features on or off”. Here you will find other programs you can “uninstall”, if you do not need them. They are a part of Windows, so you can always reactivate them, although it may require the installation disk. This step might also be better done before analysing individual services, because once you remove them, as with any third party programs as explained above, you will have that much less to analyse!

Check your registry

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Once you removed all the programs you do not need, it is possible that they have still left some traces in your registry. This is like the inner brain of your Windows, so it’s better not to have that unnecessarily muddled or polluted. A simple solution is to click on the 1-Click Maintenance tab in Glary Utilities, Scan for Issues, and Resolve. You can also check out the Options and play around with that.

Remove some bells and whistles

If after all this you STILL find your system sluggish, you can go to Start > Control Panel > Performance Information and Tools > Adjust Visual Effects to bring up the following panel:

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You can click on Adjust for Best Performance and compare the results. If you notice a marked improvement but miss some of the fancy effects, such as the shadow effect shown in the image above, you can select Custom like I have and play around with removing or adding individual effects to see which combination will give you the look and feel you like without compromising performance.

Hope your system has improved and you can start to make more money now!

Intro – know your tool

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From the translation tips page you can learn all sorts of tricks how to translate faster and better, but how about the machine you are working on? Knowing that, how to optimise it and keep it running smoothly without catching any viruses is also important.

So first, a brief explanation how the computer works, to get you onto the page.

The motherboard – intelligence

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They say that computers double in speed every couple of years. This is due to many factors. For example, in the design of the motherboard. For Windows/Intel, this might have gone up from Pentium 1 to 2 through to 5. The individual components on the motherboard (that big flat disk with all sorts of things stuck to it) could have improved in speed and quality, but overall the design is better. It’s like a smart person who looks for smarter ways to do things, so they can accomplish the same task in fewer steps.

Harddrive – storage space

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Then you need a place to store all your files and programs. Think of it as a bookshelf. If you open up a big file, or some program, or your digital dictionary, for example, it is like pulling books off your shelf. The faster your harddrive the faster programs and files will open on your computer. An SSD drive is more like a flash drive, storing data in light. It does not have a moving disk like a standard harddrive does and can therefore retrieve data from the bookshelf much faster.

bookshelf-translation-tipsIf you have the disk spinning harddrive, one thing to remember is that whenever you install software or copy files to your computer, it will often splatter the individual pages of these books throughout your bookshelf. Don’t ask me why. If you delete some files (remove pages from your bookshelf), more space will be created, but when you copy new files to your computer, the pages might be splattered even more, filling up all these little spaces. This is called “fragmentation”. Therefore, for harddrives with spinning disks, it is good to check the file fragmentation once in a while.

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A first round defrag, at 95%. The red sections before I started are torn up pages from the books. If you see any green “unmovable files”, it means you have some files open. Make sure to shut down all programs and files before starting.

When doing so your computer will tell you if it thinks it should be “defragged”. Defragging basically means that the computer reorganises all the loose pages splattered throughout your bookshelf, piecing them together as whole books. This way the disk does not need to spin so much from one section of the bookshelf to another, collecting the individual pages of your book and compiling it as one just so you can view it on your screen. This can speed up your computer. Note that since SSD drives do not have such a spinning disk but zap the data from light, and it is not a good idea to defrag such disks because it apparently wears them out.

Ram – multitasking

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RAM is also very important, and stands for Random Access Memory. You can imagine it like the number of arms and hands on a body. If you have low ram, or only two arms and two hands, you might pull out a book from your bookshelf (after first piecing it together if it is severely fragmented), leaf through it and read it, but if you need to look at a second book (open a second large file or some big program), you first have to put your first book back on the shelf (always putting each page back in its allotted, fragmented spot), before grabbing or piecing together your second book, so that you can hold it in your limited number of hands and read it.

This can make your ram one of the most important factors in the speed of your computer, especially if you like to have a lot of programs running or files open at the same time (such as translation memory software and your dictionaries).

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For example, not only do I run my own translation agency and still translate, but I like to dabble in all sorts of projects, developing webpages, graphic design and even video editing. For this I purchased a Macbook Air, running both Windows and MAC at the same time. I use the MAC side for the graphics and video editing, but find that my Chrome browser works faster on the MAC than any browser in Windows. My browser can easily have 20 tabs open at any time, each tab holding a webpage consuming its own ram. Each operating system needs about 2gb ram to operate properly, so the 8gb ram that my computer has can quickly be consumed if I have a lot of programs and files open.

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Menumeters is a very light program which can show a lot of system information in the top bar. You can set what you want to see. To the left of the ram pie shows download and upload speeds, and to the right the CPU usage of the four processors (including a bit of its history). Clicking on any of them creates a dropdown box showing more details (in this case the ram).

For this I downloaded and installed menumeters, which shows the total ram usage and free capacity for both the Windows and MAC, as well as CPU usage. If I click on the little icon, this dropdown appears showing more detailed info. If the blue part of the pie starts to fill up towards 100%, I notice that the computer starts slowing down, because its number of arms and hands are getting fully preoccupied holding all the open books. So if I want to do some heavy graphics or video work, I may have to close some translation files and programs (doesn’t matter whether in Windows or Mac) to help the computer.

When you buy a computer they often have minimum ram, because most people don’t understand all this and the end price is lower. Be prepared to invest a little into upgrading your ram and you will find your computer can run a lot faster. There are also different qualities of ram, some operating faster than others, so pay attention to this. A sluggish computer means many precious seconds lost over time, and eventually income.

CPU – speed of thought

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And lastly we have the processor speed. You can have a lot of arms and hands (ram), capable of pulling out and holding a lot of books from your bookshelf at the same time, and you can have an intelligent motherboard capable of doing more in fewer steps, but at the end of the day it is the processor which performs the tasks and calculations, such as if your translation memory software has to look through all your previous translations in search of similar sentences to help make your work faster.

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For this I also like to use software showing me CPU usage. For Mac I like to use the same Menumeters. My Mac has four processors and it shows the usage for each of them. Clicking on this icon also shows more info (above picture). On my Windows side I like to use the Task Manager (Start > Control Panel > Performance Information and Tools > Advanced Tools > Task Manager), its icon shown below. If for example some process (program) in Windows is consuming a lot of ram, the Windows icon will light up as bright green (in the example below, it shows up as half light green as I was opening up VLC). If I go to the Mac side, this might be fully consuming one of the four processors, showing up as fully red in the icon.

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If your processor(s) is busy with some task and fully preoccupied, it will slow down other tasks that your computer is trying to do. Whenever I notice that any of these icons show high CPU use, I immediately check it out. You never know, it can be a busy virus!

In Mac you can go to the Activity Monitor, while in Windows the Task Manager does the same thing, showing all the processes running on your computer. You can press the CPU column (press the column header) to sort the processes in order of how much CPU they use. For Windows (double click on the Task Manager icon to open the software – you can set it to make it always visible in the task bar) I have sorted the processes to show the highest CPU usage at the top, working its way down (which is why you will see a little down arrow in the CPU column). In my case (picture below) it shows 98% being used by System Idle Process. This is actually a measurement of how much is NOT being used, so the higher the number the better.

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On the Mac side, since my Windows is running within the application Parallels, all the CPU used by my Windows gets consolidated into the Parallels app, showing up as prl_vm_app in the activity monitor (below picture). Therefore, if I want to find out which process within Windows is using so much CPU, I have to go to the Task Manager in Windows to see a breakdown.

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Often when I see a jump in CPU usage it can be because my virus protection software is updating, or possibly I have opened a few webpages at the same time and the browser is busy downloading all the bells and whistles. That is why I have disabled Flash/Shockwave in all my browsers, because they are almost always just advertisements and tend to consume a lot of CPU.

For this reason I have also gone through a few virus protection software, because I noticed that a lot of them are resource-consuming monsters sucking up all my CPU during their occasional scans and upgrades. They are obviously not designed very well. For Windows I found Bitdefender does the job while working quietly in the background to not disturb my computer’s capacity, so that it can do its important work of earning me money.

If you do see a lot of unusually high CPU usage and find out which process is hogging it, simply type in the process name (such as prl_vm_app running Parallels and Windows on the Mac) and run a search on the net. There are tons of webpages which explain in detail the source of that process, potential dangers with it, possible remedies and so forth. This will be explained in greater detail in how to keep your computer clean, lean and mean.

If you have an older system, you can check out my computer tips when I was running XP.

Counting words, file delivery and invoicing

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Once you have finalised your translation and feel confident and happy with its quality, you will want to send it to the customer. But first you want to know how much you have earned, and possibly send an invoice together with your translation. It is a good idea to send your invoice together with your file because this makes it easier for the company to process your invoice, and helps ensure timely payment for you. If you send the invoice at a later date, it might take a while before the email gets processed properly, and may need to be confirmed with the project manager who assigned you the translation whether you were truly assigned this project. This all causes further delays, but if you send the invoice together with the translation, the project manager can quickly forward that attachment to the accounting department.

Most agencies are satisfied with an invoice created in a Word file. You can spend a few hours one day beautifying your invoice, making sure you have your business license details, payment information and contact information on the invoice (in case the accounting department needs to contact you). But don’t go overboard with choice of fonts, because it will not look how you hoped on the customer’s end if they do not have the same fonts on their system as you do. Or you can download free software such as Nitro PDF Creator which can convert through the print function any file (such as Excel) to a PDF file, which looks better as an invoice and cannot be accidentally altered (such as your bank account number).

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Once you have beautified your invoice, you can save it somewhere as a template and always use the same file when creating new invoices.

You can Save As each new invoice to create a copy and store it for your own accounting needs, or in case the customer loses it and asks for it again. You can even get fancy and create fields which hook up to an Excel file or other accounting system.

Once you are ready to issue your customer an invoice, you should include their project/order number (so that they can quickly know what job the invoice refers to), the date of delivery, the payment due date, and the word or other count.

Counting words

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For counting words in a Word file, simply go to File > Properties > Statistics tab. Since I do this frequently, once again I have created a shortcut key for this through the usual Tools > Customization > Keyboard. The word count statistics should usually suffice. If your customer is paying in some other way, such as by the page of 1800 keystrokes (East Europe and Russia) or by the line of 55 keystrokes (Germany), you can use the other statistics. But note that a keystroke includes the space, tab or ENTER mark after every word – essentially any key you press on the keyboard. Different versions of Word count these statistics differently, so make sure you test some files to find out how your version counts it. If you find out that the character statistics count does not include the space etc. after every word, simply add the character count to the word count first, and then divide the total by 1800 to get the number of pages. For your reference, I find that the average page of 1800 keystrokes usually works out to around 250 words. If charging by the line of 55 keystrokes, simply take the total keystroke count and divide it by 55.

However, some customers like to charge by the source text, meaning not by the target text, which is what you translated. Usually the customer will give you a source word count at the beginning, which you can double check using different software.

If you locally charge VAT on your services but your client is from another country (or outside Europe, if you are European), you usually do not need to charge VAT. This is because you are exporting a service, and most governments do not tax exports, because they want to encourage exports. You do not want to make yourself unnecessarily expensive to your foreign clients, and you certainly do not want to pay more taxes than necessary, so look into this before issuing your first invoice to a foreign client.

Sending your files

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When sending your file, it is a good idea to quadruple check that you have the necessary files attached to your email. There is nothing worse than being satisfied with the quality and timely delivery of your translation, and then go off to lunch or celebrate for an evening, only to come back to your computer the next day to find an angry email that there was no attachment with your email. All your efforts for timely and quality delivery have been wasted and now you must deal with damage control.

You might also consider zipping (the WinZip program on our Download Translation Programs pages) the file(s) to compress it/them to about one tenth their size. Not only does it cost less internet time for you and your customer, but sometimes very large attachments tend to wander in cyber space, arriving to their destination at a delayed time, or sometimes not at all. Or perhaps fill up your customer’s online email inbox to the point that it gets bounced back to you, causing unnecessary delays.

When you are finally ready to send, you can also put your own email address in the BCC (blind carbon copy), meaning that a copy of the email is sent back to you, this fact hidden from your customer. This way you can double check that it has been sent off properly. Or if you have a smartphone, you really do go off to lunch or partying and find out your customer did not get the file, you can forward to them the email with attached file that you sent to yourself and confirmed that you received.

If you have the means, as a backup, you can also upload your file somewhere to the web and send a download link to the customer. In such cases, or when sending larger attachments, I usually like to send two emails to my customer: one with the attachment, and the other without the attachment but informing the customer I just sent them the file as a large attachment (with the download link in the email if I am using that as a backup).

Once you have received your BCCed email back and double checked that everything is okay, then you can go to lunch and party all evening with a clear conscience. However, it is always a good idea to be available for some time after you deliver a translation. Perhaps you can check your email from your mobile phone, or you can give your customer your mobile phone for sms text messaging. Things can often be found wrong with your translation, such as some missing text you have overlooked, or some problem. Until the project is finalised and confirmed by the customer, the job is not done and it is good to be on standby over the next few hours in case the customer needs your help finalising something. You can also make sure your smartphone has all the necessary software to edit such documents.

Divide up your computer screen

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If your source material comes in electronic format, such as a .pdf, other image file, or Word file, as opposed to a printed piece of paper, you will want to learn how to divide up your monitor. Some people like to print out their electronic files, but I consider this a waste of paper and entirely unnecessary.

If you will be working in a different program than the one you received (for example, a .pdf file opens in Adobe Acrobat and you might be typing your translation into a Word file), you will want to position your two programs so that you can view them both comfortably. If you have a very large monitor or two of them at the same time (using several computer monitors), you could place the programs next to one another. But I like to work on a small light laptop, with lots of batteries so that I can go out into nature, and I find it perfectly acceptable to work on such a small screen by having the two programs positioned one above the other. That is the one great advantage of windows, that concept which Bill Gates took from Macintosh and brought it to the archaic world of Dos. On the top right hand corner of each program (even file), you will see three little icons

divide-up-your-computer-screen-2-translation-jobsThe left one minimizes your program or file (puts it out of view and sends it to your task bar at the bottom of your screen), the second one maximises it so that it takes up the entire screen, or allows you to resize the program and position it where you want to. The last X closes the program or file.

In this case you see two sets of these icons, the top row being for the program, and the second row for the file embedded within it.

Position the source document so that it covers the top half of the computer monitor, and the target (often Word) so that it covers the bottom half of the monitor. You can push the upper window high up so that the bar is partially covered, and push the bottom window down so some unimportant functions are not visible. Within each program you can remove from view all toolbars <how to..> you will not need, to maximise the viewable document within each program. At the middle horizontal section, the programs can overlap a bit, covering up parts you do not need. Play around with this for a while and I find it no problem to translate with both documents visible on my little laptop monitor.

To jump between the two programs, simply alt tab it, by holding down the ALT key, then pressing TAB once Command TAB on Mac). Or press the TAB key enough times until you get to the program you want. Once you get to the program once, pressing alt tab again gets you back to the previous program. In this manner you can quickly jump back and forth between the two programs without depending on the mouse, which will only slow you down.

When in either of the windows, the up or down arrow should be enough to navigate in the document. Or some of the Word shortcut keys could help with this < .

If you are translating within the same program, like Word, sometimes it happens that you view one file while translating into another. So you can divide up your “panes” in Word in the same manner, so that one file takes up the top half of the computer monitor while another the bottom half. You can also customise your Word to create a shortcut key to jump between one file and another, by going to Tools > Customise > Keyboard icon > category “Windows and Help” > Next Window. Once that is selected, put your cursor into the “Press new shortcut key” box and select your shortcut combination (I like to use two: ALT F1 and ALT `) and press Assign. You can program your Word in many ways like this, and customise it in general, as explained later.

To repeat, if your source and translation files are both within Word, Alt Tab might not work (depends on your version of Windows). If you can view both files within the same Word window, create your shortcut key as per the instructions above to jump between them.

So make sure you set everything up for yourself and learn shortcut keys, not automatically always depending on your mouse, because every little corner you cut will eventually add up to higher income.

Learn How to Type

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I have one monster translator who can translate a hundred pages over a weekend with only three fingers. Truly amazing, but why limit yourself? I was a few finger wonder myself for a very long time, but just imagine the difference between that and not even having to look at your fingers or the computer monitor while you type. I started from a three finger wonder, always alternating between looking at the computer monitor, then my fingers, then straining my neck over the paper document, sliding that little rock paper weight to keep my place on the page and accidentally not skip an entire paragraph, which sometimes happened. Always sliding that rock, fidgeting between this and that, until I evolved into that amazing murky world where one reads the source text, starts formulating the differently structured sentence in the target language, while the fingers blaze away unconsciously. The brain is a truly amazing devise. But to get to this level, you need to train your fingers to do the unconscious. For this you need to tell your fingers where to go every time you want to punch in a particular letter. With the three finger approach, you need to move your entire hand and watch where your fingers go, but with the ten finger approach, each finger has its allotted letters, and your palms are stagnant on one single point. If you are a three finger wonder, I can guarantee you that you will slow down markedly in the beginning, and it will take you a few months to get back to the speed you are used to. Yes, this sucks, but it is a worthwhile investment if you plan to translate for a year or more.

So get prepared for a potential drop in income, and commit yourself to the transition. It does not make sense to train your fingers only occasionally, but you start, commit yourself to the transition, so that it is as fast as possible. Otherwise you are just wasting your time.

So, very simply, place your eight index fingers on the middle row so that your left pinky is on the A and your right pinky is on the key one to the right of the L key. The G and H keys should therefore remain uncovered. Now, whenever you type, make sure to always use the finger which should logically go there. The closest, most comfortable, and logical choice. For example, I would use my right pinky finger for the P. And force yourself to do the same with numbers. It will be painful and annoying in the beginning, but if you have enough work, within a few months you should be back to normal, and then it will only get faster and faster, as it becomes fully unconscious.

Practice Makes Perfect

Of course, if you are not fully employed with translation work, you can utilise your time effectively by practicing on your free time, so that next time you do get a translation, you will be that much faster, freeing up more time and increasing your income stream.

For this there are many software you can use, such as this free online one, which will show you the results of your test (words typed per minute, how many mistakes you made). This way you can shorten the period it takes you to transfer from the three finger punch to an unconsious system to return your speed to how it was before you decided to make the change. It’s like playing the guitar or any other musical instrument – it’s called “finger memory”. You need to stay consistent for it to work, and stop yourself from the temptation to revert back to your previous bad habits. An exercise well worth your wallet!

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